Johann Barthold Jongkind was a painter and printmaker.
Jongkind studied at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and in the studio of Eugène Isabey in Paris. His early landscapes show the influence of his Dutch heritage. In the late 1850s and 1860s he was friendly with Gustave Courbet, Eugène Boudin and Claude Monet, and his works of this period became bolder in style and composition, for example, Barge on the Canal (1860; Louvre, Paris).
From 1862 Jongkind began to experiment with etching, an interest he shared with JW. In this year Jongkind's work was rejected from the newly formed Société des Acquafortists. The same year JW's Symphony in White, No. I: The White Girl (YMSM 38) was rejected from the Royal Academy. Henri-Fantin Latour expressed incredulity at such decisions in a letter to JW dating from October 1862 (#01075). Like JW, Jongkind exhibited at the Salon des Refusés, both having faced rejection at the Salon in 1863. Despite this lack of official recognition in the 1860s, by the 1880s things had changed, and in 1887 both Jongkind and JW were apparently put forward to receive decorations from the French goverment (#12469).
Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London and Philadelphia, 1908; Bénézit, E., Dictionnaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs, 8 vols, Paris, 1956-61; Hefting, Victorine, 'Johann Barthold Jongkind', The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, ed. L. Macy, http://www.groveart.com (accessed 4 December 2002).