A specialist on neuralgia, he became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, in 1856, and was registered on 1 January 1859.
He launched an enquiry into the state of workhouses in The Lancet, and instigated the petition to the College of Physicians on the overcrowded dwellings of the poor. He was editor of The Practitioner, 1868, and author of numerous medical books including Stimulants and narcotics. Their mutual relations with special researches on the action of alcohol, 1865; Report on Practical Medicine, 1867; On the use of wines in health and disease, 1870; Neuralgia and the diseases that resemble it, 1872. He died from exposure to sewer gas.
He was appointed the first Dean of the Medical School for Women in 1874. He lived at 10 Wimpole Street (where he was a neighbour of Whistler's brother, Dr W. McN. WHistler) and at 15 Onslow Square, Brompton.
The Annual Register, London, 1874 , p. 164; Medical Register, London; Kelly's Post Office Directory, London; Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford, 2004.